Top Online Travel Companies (OTA) in India – Know them better before using their services


There are over 30 online travel companies in India excluding airlines and other hotel sites. Few of them specialize in a particular field. For the benefit of all visitors to India coming from all over the world, the top ten places you can book your India tour are just below – – MakeMyTrip, India's # 1 travel site founded and promoted by Mr Deep Kalra, is the country's top travel-related products and services website. They offer flights, hotel bookings, car hire, holiday destinations and even train bookings now on their website. Makemytrip is targeting the US / Canada markets, the Indian market, and recently they have also started makemytrip UAE. Makemytrip now comes with their IPO in the US, collecting about $ 100 million. They were oversubscribed and collected about $ 800 million. Their office is located in Gurgaon, India and has over 700 employees. Their code specialization is in the field of vacation planning and booking, including inbound travelers. They are expected to sell over 8000 tickets per year. Day.

Yatra – Yatra is known for being the second best OTA travel site in the country. It has been promoted by Dhruv Shringi along with a few more guys who served with eBookers prior to this venture. Yatra has been funded by some of the leading Indian Reliance groups, TV 18 Group and NVP, and recently received funding from Intel. They specialize in domestic flights. They are also based in Gurgaon, India and have over 600 employees. They also book car rental, hotels, vacations and train reservations. Currently, they are expected to sell over 5000 tickets a day.

Cleartrip – Cleartrip was a new player in the Indian market about 3 years ago and they are known for their technology. As the name says, their technology is very clear, and on their website you don't see any banners and pop-ups either. They were the first OTA to integrate with India's rail reservation system called IRCTC. They are based from Mumbai and have a smaller team compared to Makemytrip or Yatra.

Expedia India – Expedia recently entered Indian travel space and are currently focusing on their hotel business. They are yet to integrate LCC's (Low Cost Carrers) such as GoAir, GoIndigo, JetLite, Kingfisher Red etc into their portfolio. But it is certain that in a year's time they will lead the Indian market.

Travelocity India – Travelocity is again a new player in the Indian market and they are progressing rapidly. They recently bought another hotel OTA called Travelguru. They are controlled from Singapore.



Cheap Family Fun Vacation Destinations in the United States – Unique and Affordable Ideas


Cedar Breaks National Monument, located in the Dixie National Forest in southern Utah, is a great place to camp with the family without breaking the family vacation budget. The place is also very beautiful and cheap. This region is popular with valleys, mesas, rivers and rocks. In summer, the lush green alpine meadows and beautiful wild flower exhibits all attract. This natural landmark offers many amenities such as fishing, boating, hiking, biking, wildlife, or discovering the place with your camera. The Cedar City-Brian Head Tourism Bureau can help you plan your trip, making it child-friendly and economical.

Another idea to make your family vacation a fun one financially is to use the facilities provided by the RV Industry Association. You can rent a motor from El Monte RV to travel with children. You can take with you all that is required during the ride, as the company's engine is like a giant wheel. You can stop wherever you want. This gives a sense of adventure. There is no need to pay airfare, stay at shabby motels and expensive hotels. You can make your meals and enjoy it on board and avoid spending on expensive foods.

Fort Collins, located in northern Colorado with the beautiful Colorado mountains in the background, is a wonderful and reasonably priced family vacation spot. Fort Collins has hundreds of miles of bike trails and nature trails ideal for cycling and picnics. There are many family-friendly activities to do in northern Colorado. Poudre Canyon is known for picnics, hiking and cycling. In addition, there is the Westville Zoo; Gardens on Spring Creek; Greenway-paths; and the Bee Family Centennial Farm, an interactive museum where you can know about farming in the past and present.

Fort Collins has many parks covering more than 800 acres of hallowed parkland plus the easily accessible playground at the new Spring Canyon Park. Other attractions include Science by-way – Cache La Poudre / North Park Scenic Byway, Old Town Square live music concerts, Fort Collins Museum and Environmental Learning Center, where you can see rehabilitated birds, stroll on the nature trails or participate in current educational activities. All of these unique ideas can make your family vacation fun and cheap.



Keep Your Maintenance Ability (in Aviation Standards)


Wouldn't it be a nice and joyous world if the carriers had constant restrictions on the size and weight of carry-on bags? Well, your dreams are now squeezed like the mammoth execution you tried to fit into the trunk of your last flight. Not all airport storage is created equal. Each airline bases their package limitations on their internal configurations. Which means, in short, one bag could be transported on one flight but must be checked on another.

Fortunately, domestic airlines such as US Airways, Delta, American and United agree on their maximum size, 22 x 14 x 9 inches. Unfortunately, luggage with most wheels pushes these dimensions to the breaking point. Even I had to check a bag because the wheels were just too big for the overhead compartment to close.

A few domestic carriers are more generous with their bag restrictions. Alaska Airlines allows a full 24 x 17 x 10 inches (so passengers can fit in their parks on board, we assume). AirTran and Southwest allow 24 x 16 by 10 inches. Unless you carry bricks, transports are rarely weighed, but there are technical limits. Make sure your carry bag does not exceed 40 pounds on the big wig airlines and 25 pounds on the not so big wig airlines.

If you are abroad, wear a backpack or a light clamp duffel. European carriers have extremely strict design dimensions. Weight is also a big factor. Air France and Alitalia limit transport to 21 x 13 x 9 inches with a maximum weight of 26.4 pounds. Carry-on bags at Lufthansa, Swiss and Turkish may be 21 x 15 x 9 inches, but these airlines are counter-attacking with a maximum weight of 17.6 pounds.

New seats and floats often mean less than eight inches of space for bags under the seat in front of you with a maximum width of 14 inches. The middle seat in a three-seat row has even less space under the seat.

Our advice, if you know you are going abroad or traveling in different sized planes, it is worth buying a lightweight, smaller carrying capacity around 21 X 13 X 9 inches. A bag of that size flies almost everywhere if you don't fill it with heavy, unforgivable items. Keep in mind that household boxes are not "very" flexible, so be sure to measure your execution before pulling it all the way to the gate, only to be forced to check it.



Austrian Airlines history at JFK


1. Return to JFK:

Two decades after Austrian Airlines launched its original but failed transatlantic service to New York – a joint operation with Sabena Belgian World Airways inaugurated April 1, 1969 with a Boeing 707-320 registered OE-LBA making a stopover in Brussels, returned to the United States on March 26, 1989, this time with an Airbus A-310-300 sports registration OE-LAA. The occasion not only introduced intercontinental services to its route system, but a broadband aircraft with its first three-class configuration for its fleet. Unlike the previous trial, this success proved successful, but signaled the beginning of another two decades of resilience, paved with numerous aircraft types, aviation alliances and strategies, terminals, handling companies, and computer systems. This is its history.

2. JFK Station Evolution:

Basic training, held at Austrian Airlines & # 39; North American Headquarters in Whitestone, New York, and taught by Peter "Luigi" Huebner, began on February 6, 1989, or six weeks before the opening flight, and its curriculum included "Passenger Action I" and "Adios Check-In" courses.

Austrian Airlines & # 39; first JFK location, the East Wing for the no longer existing International Arrivals Building, was a shared facility with Icelandair and included five Austrian-specific check-in counters equipped with computers, automated boarding pass printers and laser-scalable luggage markers and the common used upper level, Icelandair Saga Lounge.

Fully employed and trained by Austrian and equipped in his uniform, his staff performed all field operations: passenger service, ticket sales reservations, lost and found, cargo control, administration, supervision and management, while Icelandair personnel served on the ramp, monitoring aircraft service and baggage , cargo and mail loading.

However, the success of the operation depended on the equipment that serviced it, and it was only Airbus Industry's decision to offer a shorter-body version, lower capacity of its signature A-300, that allowed transatlantic operation to be restored with A-310.

This long-range, twin-engine, widebody design of contemporary technology offers the same range and dual-speed comfort as the comparable corporate engine 747 or tri-motor DC-10 and L-1011, while at the same time offering reduced capacity to facilitate year-round profitability. Because of the Austrian market size, the larger 747, DC-10 or L-1011 would otherwise have worked with a loss out of high season. Any of the other then long-haul aircraft, including the Boeing 707 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-8, contained older generation, fuel-most, four-phase Phase 1 technology in the early 1960s and would have been banned from US service , unless they had been killed or completely retrofitted. The very A-310 made Austrian Airlines' long, thin route sector Vienna-New York possible.

The original schedule in 1989 offered six weekly frequencies during the summer and five in the winter, with two A-310-300s serving New York and Tokyo, the latter with a stopover in Moscow. Alternatively, they also extended the longer-range routes, e.g. To Tel Aviv, Istanbul and Tehran.

In the first six months of JFK operations, an aircraft has never experienced an excessive delay due to scheduling, resulting in exemplary performance on time.

In-flight service, of course, represented a large portion of an airline's expenses. As a result, many carriers began to reduce this to reduce costs. Austrian Airlines, however, remained unique in a world characterized by snacks and paper cups by offering printed menus, recreation kits, porcelain service, free alcoholic beverages and earphones in the bus shuttles for its transatlantic flights to and from Vienna.

However, due to the A-310's short flight hooks, the lower deck luggage compartment was limited, with the front team usually containing luggage unit loaders (ULD's) and the rear of the cargo, which was often limited to two pallets and a single AKE unit.

Although the load factors in the New York-Vienna sector were initially low, they rose steadily until most flights were full. Large tour groups formed an increasing part of the passenger mix along with the expected connecting passengers who were able to take advantage of the expanding Vienna hub. It was the ultimate testimony of an airline when a passenger chose to fly with it and connect at its domestic airport as opposed to traveling directly with a national carrier.

As a "second attempt" over the Atlantic, the Austrian airline's intercontinental A-310 service to New York was ultimately successful.

With the acquisition of its third A-310-300, OE-LAC registered, Austrian Airlines considered service to another US gateway in the spring of 1991, such as to Los Angeles, but the A-310-300 & # 39; s 11-hour flight time excluded this reality. Even if Chicago were considered alternatively, America's own direct Boeing 767-200ER service to Vienna would have led to insurmountable competition as O & # 39; Hare was its second-largest hub, leaving Washington-Dulles as the only viable alternative.

For the European Continental Network, a higher gross weight McDonnell-Douglas MD-83 was ordered for delivery in 1991 and several existing MD-81 & # 39; s were converted to this standard, increasing their reach and payload. Two additional Fokker F.50 & # 39; s were also booked for domestic and long, thin international routes.

During the five-year period from 1989 to 1994, Austrian Airlines operated independently of JFK and offered as few as four weekly departures in the winter and as many as seven in the summer.

3. Delta Air Lines Code Share:

Changed market conditions requested a changed strategy at JFK for Austrian. For example, to try and adapt to a US domestic company to get feed for its transatlantic flights, it entered into a marketing agreement with Delta Air Lines, where it placed its two-letter "OS" code on Delta-operated flights, while Delta itself placed its own "DL" designation mutually on Austrian services. Two Delta flight attendants, wearing their company's uniforms, initially also served in the cabins of the A-310 & # 39; s to and from Vienna.

Although the economic benefit of the concept was slow to realize, the aircraft eventually achieved high load factors, carrying both Austrian and Delta passengers from about two dozen US cities through New York to Vienna, often with no travel.

To reduce ground handling costs and achieve synergistic benefits between carriers, Austrian Airlines moved its operations to Delta Terminal 1A (later redesigned terminal 2) on July 1, 1994, retaining only nine of its original 21 employees. Delta Air Lines, the newly appointed ground handling company, assumed arrivals, lost and found, passenger check-in, departure port, ramp and trunk, while Austrian itself continued to carry out its own ticket, cargo control, administration, oversight and management functions.

1994 also marked the acquisition of two long-range four-engine A-340-200s configured for 36 business and 227 economy class passengers and registered OE-LAG and OE-LAH. They periodically served New York for the next decade.

Another change occurred three years later, between February 1997 and 1998, when it moved its check-in counters and operational office to Delta Terminal 3, but otherwise remained the same marketing alliance.

The year also marked the first time that the transatlantic route to New York had matured sufficiently to support a second departure on selected days of the summer schedule, with this additional flight arriving in 2045 and diverting to 2205. Usually operated by aircraft OE-LAC, an A -310 with a reduced business section, but economy with greater capacity, facilitates connections with the departure from Vienna for dinner.

4. Atlantic Excellence:

Once again, following a deregulation requiring airline restructuring and attempts to achieve further cost-reducing synergies, Austrian Airlines integrated its JFK operations with Sabena Belgian World Airways and Swissair on March 1, 1998, forming tri-carrier Atlantic Excellence Alliance. Although the employees of all three carriers continued to wear their respective uniforms, they operated from a single passenger service and cargo control offices using a joint Austrian, Sabena and Swissair check-in facility and handled each other's flights.

During the high season, seven daily flights operated by four airlines were offered, including two to Vienna with Austrian Airlines, two to Brussels with Delta and Sabena, one to Geneva with Swissair and two to Zurich, also with Swissair.

Eight functions were performed at the Atlantic Excellence station, including checks, arrivals, departures, VIP / special services, ticket sales reservations, load checks, ramp inspection and troubleshooting. When Swissair was contracted to prepare cargo sheets for Malev-Hungarian Airlines & # 39; flights to Budapest, the actual Load Control function involved handling of six aircraft types-747-300s, A-340-200 / -300s, MD-11s, A -330- 200-, 767-200ER- and A-310-300s-often require training courses between carriers.

As was the case with Austrian Airlines, Delta also entered into mutual two-letter code-share agreements with Sabena and Swissair, but now took the previous marketing arrangement to full alliance status on Delta's markedly mature JFK aircraft hub. Delta nevertheless continued to provide ramp and baggage room features to all three Atlantic Excellence airlines.

In August of that year, Austrian Airlines took delivery of the first of four longer series, high-capacity A-330-200, registered OE-LAM and configured for 30 business and 235 economy class passengers, and eventually replaced the A -310-300 as its intercontinental workhorse. The four aircraft, which later operated a reduced 24-seat business cabin when the Grand Class concept was introduced, sported registrations OE-LAM, OE-LAN, OE-LAO and OE-LAP.

During the 1998 summer schedule, Austrian fielded its first double-flight operation from JFK, with the first departure normally operated by the A-330 and the second by the A-310.

5. Star Alliance:

Although an ultimate "Swissport Solution" was considered, under which all Atlantic Excellence field operations staff would have been transferred to the service provider, this never occurred.

Rumors that rumbled through the station as the gentle warnings of an imminent storm spread the atmosphere in mid-1999. A new strategy seemed to be looming on the horizon, and its seeds, planted long before it bloomed, were multifaceted and all-encompassing.

By June 1999, Delta Air Lines and Air France had formed the basis of a new global alliance, later named SkyTeam, thus dissolving the 25-month Austrian / Delta / Sabena / Swissair Atlantic Excellence Alliance, whose agreement without renegotiation would expire in August 2000.

Nevertheless, despite a ten percent cut in investment, Swissair had sought to buy additional Austrian Airlines shares, which precluded Austrian & # 39; s goal of preserving its own identity and independence and forcing it to withdraw from it. Swissair-led Qualiflyer Alliance of European carriers.

Swissair and Sabena formed a combined commercial management structure, which in turn proved to contradict Austrian Airlines & # 39; independent direction.

Finally, in early 2000, both Sabena and Swissair entered into code sharing agreements with American Airlines, a US flight composition that contradicted Austrian Airlines & # 39; s US feed strategy.

Nevertheless, as a small but profitable international airline of significant quality, Austrian Airlines needed the reach of a global alliance to remain profitable and thus entered into a membership agreement with the Lufthansa and United-led Star Alliance that entered into force on March 26, 2000.

The largest and longest-lasting alliance then consisted of Air Canada, Air New Zealand, All Nippon, Ansett Australia, Austrian Airlines, British Midland, Lauda Air, Lufthansa, Mexicana, SAS, Thai Airways International, Tyrolean, United and Varig and together 23 percent of world passenger traffic. But more importantly, the decision facilitated continued independent identity and operation, yet had the potential for expansion. Expressed as a sentiment, the decision was stated as, "Here we grow again!"

The transition from Atlantic Excellence to Star Alliance, which started as early as January 2000, led to four integrated changes.

1). A brand new IT (information technology) system and frequent flight program.

2). The operational relocation to a new terminal, passenger service office, passenger check-in counter, cargo control aircraft dispatch center and port at JFK.

3) New alliance airlines code distribution flights and traffic feeds resulted in the closure of the Atlanta station and the subsequent opening of the Chicago ones and the reopening of the Washington one in the United States.

4). The company-run migration training in Oberlaa, Austria, location of Austrian Airlines headquarters.

Star Alliance membership, which in turn involved a move to Terminal One at JFK, requested another handling change, this time from Delta to Lufthansa, which now performed Luggage Services and Passenger Check-In functions, while Austrian himself continued to act as capacity of arrivals, ticketing, load control, ramp inspection and management. Under a mutual agreement, it also provided these passenger services to Lufthansa for its own Frankfurt departures during non-operational hours. Initial loading and luggage operations were initially performed by Hudson General, which was later renamed GlobeGround North America.

In a further cost reduction strategy, Austrian Airlines moved to a smaller, lower-cost Passenger Service office on Terminal One in September 2002, at which time the Load Control / Ramp Supervision function was assigned to Lufthansa. After no longer operating Lufthansa flights, Austrian staff declined further, now to six full-time and two part-time positions, and daily change time dropped from nine to eight.

Austrian aircraft with the largest capacity, the A-340-300 – which accommodated 30 business and 261 economy class passengers – also periodically provided service to JFK, especially in the schedule for the summer of 2002, where an evening was planned on Saturday. Two such aircraft, registered OE-LAK and OE-LAL, now form part of the fleet.

6. Swissport USA:

The constant need to reduce costs resulted in yet another change at JFK's handling company on January 1, 2003, when most of the land was transferred from Lufthansa to Swissport USA.

In preparation for the change, Swissport Passenger Service staff participated in the Guide Check-In course in Vienna the previous month, while a Swissport agent, who structured the baggage services department, attended the World Tracer Basic course later this year, in October.

Equipped in Austrian Airlines uniforms, Swissport employees performed arriving, losing and being found, passenger check-in, departure port, load control and ramp inspection functions, while Austrian himself continued to assume responsibility for ticket sales, administration, surveillance and management.

Load control, initially performed in Terminal 4 using the Swissair DCS system, was eventually transferred to Terminal One and the Lufthansa-WAB system after Swissport operations staff completed a computer-controlled cargo control course in Vienna that same March.

7. North American Station Training Program:

Because most of the Swissport agents had little prior aviation experience and were therefore unfamiliar with Austrian Airlines & # 39; products and procedures, the author created a local training program by compiling course descriptions, writing textbooks, devising quizzes and exams, teaching the courses themselves and subsequently. issue education certificates to prepare them more to do their jobs.

The program, which tracks its routes to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Handling Course established in 1989 and the initial Load Control training material written in 1998, evolved into the full North American Station Training Program, the content of which is updated according to aircraft, system , procedure and alliance change included the four integrated curricula for "Initial Passenger Service", "Ramp Supervision Certification", "Load Control Licensing" and "Airline Management."

Ultimately, including 27 passenger services, ramp inspection, load control, air cargo and procedures and flight station management training manuals, two station histories and 28 curricula, resulted in 63 courses being taught by Austrian Airlines and Austrian Airlines-handling airlines Delta, Lufthansa, Passenger Handling Services / Maca, SAS, Servair and Swissport at the eight North American stations in Atlanta, Cancun, Chicago, Montreal, New York, Punta Cana, Toronto and Washington.

The program, which quickly evolved into the equivalent of an "airline university" and was often cited as the reason why Swissport employees were eager to transfer to the Austrian Airlines account, proved to be instrumental in their career paths and facilitate their promotions or acceptance by other airlines. .

8. Boeing and Lauda Air to JFK:

JFK, previously operated exclusively by Austrian Airlines and its fleet of A-310, A-330 and A-340 Airbus widebody aircraft, received its first regularly scheduled Lauda Air 767 operation during the summer of 2004, an airline founded by Formula I -race car driver Niki Lauda and considered Austrian Airlines & # 39; competitor in the early part of its history. But in the following year, its frequency quadrupled, and during 2007 it completely replaced the 17-year-old Airbus service.

The Lauda 767 flight in the summer of 2004, which served as a supplement to the daily Austrian frequency during the 11-week period from June 26 to September 5, was scheduled to arrive by 2055 on Saturday evenings and departed approximately. 25 hours later at. 2200 Sunday.

To prepare the station for the additional service, local Boeing 767 Passenger Service and Boeing 767 Load Control courses were created and taught for Swissport employees.

As Lufthansa's technical staff did not have 767 licenses, its maintenance was contracted with Delta Air Lines, which operated all three-series 7600 series -200, -300 and -400, and a comprehensive night-stop and safety procedure was performed prior to the aircraft's pushing. back to Terminal One hardstand, at which time security sealing was applied to all access doors. Unloaded galley equipment was washed and prepared for the following evening.

Due to the aircraft's then 36-passenger Amadeus Class capacity, the late departure was difficult to sell in the business cabin without significant marketing promotion and fare reduction, while cargo pallet loading was dimensionally limited to four positions in the front room. The aircraft itself operated in a combination of supplies from Lauda Air and Star Alliance.

During the summer 2005 schedule, from June 14 to September 2, 767-300 delivered up to four additional weekly frequencies, resulting in a total of 11, with the A-330 normally running the early departure and 767-300 the late.

In 2007, the type completely replaced the A-330 and A-340 fleets, but appeared with several configurations. For example, OE-LAE, -LAY and -LAZ aircraft had room for 36 in business and 189 in economy, while registering OE-LAX and -LAW respectively contained 30 and 200 seats. Aircraft OE-LAT, which offered the highest capacity of the six, included ten more seats than these two latter for a complement of 240 passengers.

9. Centralized load control:

In late 2006, a concept called "Centralized Load Control" (CLC) system was introduced at JFK, and the station, like the nucleus of an atom, became the nucleus of the whole.

The granddaughter of Michael Steinbuegl, then-JFK Station Manager, the procedure following trends set by Swiss International in New York, Lufthansa in Cape Town, and SAS in Bangkok, originated in a previous research project where he explored cost reductions using a large, single centralized load control department in Vienna or several regional. However, the latter led to language and time zone barriers.

After accumulating considerable experience in creating operational procedures and methods as a former flight handling manager, he was well versed with weight and balance issues.

He tried to apply this knowledge and while trying to correct the system's incompatibility and communication difficulties with the SAS-Bangkok event in Washington, he first tackled this station, which, like JFK, already used the Lufthansa-WAB system. In the process, he set the course for the many transitions that would come by making multiple guard journeys to establish local station-compliant procedures and then prepare a detailed pamphlet about them. The first centralized load sheet for the Washington flight, OS 094, was generated on November 1, 2006.

Charlie Schreiner, then head of Austrian Airlines Load Control, then flagged the event by sending the following telex.

"With Austrian Airlines Flight OS 094 on November 1," he wrote, "our first line station had been linked to a regular centralized load checking process with ULD aircraft. All operations on operational flight preparation, load scheduling, ULD coordination and WAB System documentation, including that cargo sheets sent to the cockpit via ACARs had been successfully checked by our JFK station yesterday. "

However, the rest of the CLC program involved phase implementation. In May of the following year, service from Chicago was reintroduced. Because this could now be considered a "new" station, it followed logically that its load sheets would be integrated into the CLC system from the start and, despite computer system differences, successfully adapted with the first flight on May 29 after procedural changes.

When these cities were managed by JFK, it was decided to integrate the last North American station, Toronto, whose first centralized cargo sheet was issued July 1.

Three Austrian Airlines dedicated load controllers from Swissport, two of whom worked on any given day during peak season, formed the centralized load control team.

Since the fourth station was integrated, JFK produced about 120 load sheets a month, and the highly successful system provided several benefits.

First of all, it provided significant savings. All aircraft departed on time relative to their load plan and load sheet preparation, and all four North American aircraft were operationally handled by only one more daily load controller than JFK had employed for a single departure. All load instruction reports and load sheets were further generated by the Lufthansa-WAB system, giving Vienna instant access to all load control related data and documentation.

10. Boeing 777:

When Austrian Airlines reversed its winter plan for the 2008-2009 winter of March 29, JFK fielded its first Boeing 777-200ER operation, the airline's largest capacity aircraft and the fifth base type to have served New York after A-310, A-330 , A-340 and 767.

The aircraft, originally acquired by Lauda Air, was configured for 49 business class and 258 bus passengers, although two later examples, which included higher gross weight and changed passenger arrangement, accommodated 260 economy class passengers in ten-by-three, three-four – three, configurations.

In the six-month period between April and September 2009, each flight carried 34 percent more arriving and departing passengers, along with substantially increased complement of goods and mail than the comparable year earlier period when 767 was used. The four 777 in the fleet were registered OE-LPA, OE-LPB, OE-LPC and OE-LPD.

11. Lufthansa acquisition:

2009 was a key year for Austrian Airlines, both locally and systematically. Due to the global economic downturn, escalating fuel prices, eroding yields and strong Western European competition from low-cost carriers, its economic viability and continued existence as a company was threatened despite previous strategies that included the sale of the A-330 and A-340 fleet. that reduces its long-haul route system and implements several restructuring plans. Its savior in the form of an agreement with Lufthansa-German Airlines enabled it to continue its operations as it took over its debt and acquired most of its shares.

On August 28, the European Commission officially approved Lufthansa-German Airlines acquisition of Austrian Airlines Group. The strategy consisted of € 500 million from the specified holding company needed for restructuring and the merger between the two carriers, paving the way for Austria's integration into the Lufthansa fold in September. However, in order to obtain the required antitrust immunity, Lufthansa itself had to agree to abandon key flight tracks and reduce the number of services between Vienna and Brussels, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich and Stuttgart.

For Austrian Airlines, which would become one of Lufthansa's several independent European hub carriers, it signaled economic survival, an improved financial foundation, cost synergies such as the purchase of shared fuel and aircraft, and access to Lufthansa's extensive international sales and route networks. . The establishment of Vienna as a high-performance hub for traffic feeds for the new owner's dense central and eastern European route system was considered Austrian strength within the system.

As a result of this ownership, numerous basic North American changes also occurred.

In Toronto and Washington, for example, Lufthansa assumed all ground handling aspects.

In New York, more than half of the staff employed at its North American headquarters in Whitestone was laid off, while its facility, located on the fifth floor of Octagon Plaza and considered its "fortress" for nearly a quarter of a century, was closed, with the remaining staff moving to Lufthansa's East Meadow, Long Island, office.

At JFK itself, Austrian Airlines Cargo just moved to the Lufthansa plant on November 1, and 16 days later Swissport sent the ground handling flashlight to Lufthansa-German Airlines.

Michael Steinbuegl, manager of this station for four years, was promoted to Key Account Manager, North America, but four ticket sales booking positions became redundant when Lufthansa took over these functions, reducing Austrian Airlines & # 39; s staff to just two members, (author included), who received limited six-month contracts expiring May 15, 2010. Intermittently integrated into the Lufthansa operation and plan, they handled their flights while becoming familiar with Lufthansa employees with their own procedures, but after this transitional period. was also released from employment.

The last Austrian Airlines & # 39; red uniform presence & # 39; whether represented by purely Austrian Airlines or Swissport staff took place on November 15, and the office on the first floor of Terminal One, so far "home" for the carrier's management, passenger service, centralized load Control, ticket sales reservations and luggage services / lost and found wards were delivered to three desks in the Lufthansa facility, two of which were Duty Manager stations located at the main level and one of which was reserved for the Key Account Manager position at the lower level of the Station Operations office.

All things seem to come completely in cycle. The event, effectively ending 21 years of autonomous Austrian Airlines presence, marked the return of the carrier to its 1938 integration with Lufthansa and its 2000 handling event at JFK.

12. JFK Station Forces:

In 2009, Austrian Airlines served 666 arrival and departure flights at JFK and carried 158,267 inbound and outbound passengers, up 18.42 percent over the previous year, while carrying 5,005 arrival and departure flights and carrying 1,074,642 passengers during the of the seven years between 2003 and 2009 that Swissport USA took over its land management there.

JFK, after weathering several airlines, terminal rooms, computer systems, handling companies, aircraft types and a steadily declining number of Austrian Airlines employees during its 21-year presence, effectively closed its doors, the last of its North American stations to have made that.

Through its more than two decades of presence, it had handled five aircraft types – Airbus A-310, Airbus A-330, Airbus A-340, Boeing 767 and Boeing 777; had adopted four strategies – its first, independent operation; Delta Air Lines Code Agreement; tri-carrier Atlantic Excellence station; and Star Alliance integration; had served from four JFK terminals – terminal one, terminal two, terminal three and the international arrival building; had been handled by three companies – Delta Air Lines, Lufthansa-German Airlines and Swissport USA; and had used two computer systems.

Fordi talenter og evner hos mange af dens medarbejdere blev kanaliseret til at producere kreative og innovative resultater i det sidste kapitel af dets eksistens, havde JFK noteret flere resultater, hvoraf nogle gjorde det muligt for den at spille en stadig mere nukleisk rolle i Nordamerika. De kan opdeles som følger.

Det nordamerikanske stationsuddannelsesprogram, der bestod af passagertjeneste, rampetilsynscertificering, belastningskontrollicenser og ledelsesdiscipliner, var medvirkende til uddannelsesforberedelsen af ​​alle medarbejdere på entry-level, hvilket gjorde det muligt for dem at udføre deres udpegede funktioner med tilstrækkelig procedureviden eller climb the ladder all the way to management, if so needed. The textbooks and courses were subsequently used to duplicate this success at Austrian Airlines' other North American stations.

The Centralized Load Control (CLC) Department, entailing the preparation of loading instruction/reports and load sheets for the four North American stations of Chicago, New York, Toronto, and Washington, was highly successful and once involved four aircraft types: the Boeing 767, the Airbus A-330, the Airbus A-340, and the Boeing 777.

The Baggage Services/Lost and Found Department, under the direction of Omar Alli, served as a model for other stations and earned a lost baggage rating that became the envy of them. Omar himself often traveled to other stations in order to provide restructuring guidance for their own Baggage Services Departments.

The Ticket Sales-Reservations counter, under the direction of Sidonie Shields, consistently collected significant amounts of annual revenue in ticket sales, excess baggage, and other fees.

The visible presence of Austrian Airlines, in red uniforms, to the passenger, whether worn by Austrian Airlines or Swissport staff, cemented its identity.

The several annual special flights, which sometimes posed significant challenges, but were always successfully executed, included those carrying the Rabbi Twersky group, the American Music Abroad group, the IMTX group, the Vienna Boys' Choir, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and Life Ball, the latter with its high-profile celebrities, colorful characters, and pre-departure parties.

The special events, often fostering a "family" atmosphere among its own and Swissport staff, included the annual "Year in Review" series, the Pocono Mountain ski trips, the summer pool parties, the birthdays, the Thanksgiving dinners, and the Secret Santas at Christmas.

And, finally, the daily briefings, jokes, laughs, raps, camaraderie, friendships, and human connections continually emphasized and acknowledged the true souls behind everyone as they cohesively worked toward the airline's and the station's common goals.

Michael Steinbuegl, who assumed command as JFK Station Manager in September of 2005, had cultivated the environment and orchestrated the steps that had allowed every one of these accomplishments to be made.

13. Two Decades of Elasticity:

Austrian Airlines, hitherto among the smallest European airlines, had to assume a considerable degree of necessary "elasticity" during its 21 years at JFK, ebbing and flowing with the ever-changing turbulence created by prevailing market conditions, seeking financial benefit, synergistic strength, market niche, alliance realignment, and ultimate change of ownership. Defying Darwinian philosophy, whose "survival of the fittest" prediction is often translated as "survival of the largest," Austrian Airlines had, despite numerous, necessary redirections, proven the contrary, perhaps prompting a rewording of the philosophy to read, "survival of the smallest," if four short words were added-namely, "as a global player."

Toward this end, the latest strategy enabled the carrier to survive. For station JFK and its staff, however, it did not.


Because I had been hired by Austrian Airlines two months before its inaugural transatlantic flight from JFK occurred on March 26, 1989 and subsequently held several positions there throughout its 21-year history, I felt singularly qualified, as a lifetime aviation researcher, historian, and writer, to preserve its story in words. It is, in essence, my story. It is what I lived. And what I leave…




The second most valuable digital asset by market capitalization became Ethereum (ETH) in 2019, according to Binance Research, the new research will be 2019.

They said that last year ETH showed an “average average correlation” with other digital assets, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.69.

For the purposes of the study, activities with a correlation above 0.5 were assigned a strong positive relationship, while assets with a correlation of 0.5 were considered to have a strong negative relationship. The higher the number, the stronger the correlation.

crypto prices

Cardano (ADA) and EOS followed ETH, with correlation coefficients of 0.65 and 0.66, respectively. This is compared to a correlation coefficient of 0.31 against Cosmos (ATOM), which was the lowest correlation digital asset of the year, followed by a network link (LINK) and tezos (XTZ).

Overall, Binance concluded that all cryptocurrency systems continue to be “highly correlated” with what many cryptocurrency analysts have observed over the past few years. However, the correlation was “slightly reduced” in the fourth quarter of 2019, per report.


Japan's insurance industry


During the 80's and the first half of the 90's, like the rest of its economy, Japan's insurance sector grew like a juggernaut. The large amount of premium income and asset formation that could sometimes be compared to even the most powerful United States and the restriction of domestic investment opportunities made Japanese insurers look out for investment. The industry's position as a major international investor began in the 1980s, leading it under the scanner of analysts around the world.

The global insurance giants tried to gain a foothold in the market and see the gigantic size of the market. But the restrictive nature of Japanese insurance laws led to intense, sometimes criminal, negotiations between Washington and Tokyo in the mid-1990s. The resulting bilateral and multilateral agreements coincided with Japan's Big Bang financial reform and deregulation.

Based on the outcome of the 1994 Japan insurance negotiations, a number of liberalization and deregulation measures have since been implemented. But the deregulation process was very slow and more often than not very selective to protect the interest and market share of domestic companies. Although the Japanese economy was comparable to its US counterpart in size, the very foundations of efficient financial markets – the sound rules and rules of a competitive economic environment – were clearly absent. And its institutional structure was also different from the rest of the developed countries.

The Kieretsu structure – the cross-border business group in a large number of companies in various industries – was a unique phenomenon in Japan. As a result, the necessary shareholder activism to force companies to adopt an optimal business strategy for the company was absent. Although initially highlighted as a model in Japan's prosperity, the vulnerability of this system became apparent when the bubble of the economic boom burst in the 1990s. Working against Japan was its inability to keep up with software development elsewhere in the world. Software has been the engine of growth in the world economy for the last decade, and countries lagging behind in this field were facing the weakening economies of the 1990s.

Japan, the world leader in the "brick and mortar" industries, surprisingly heard far behind in the "new world" economy following the internet revolution. Now Japan calls the 90's a "lost decade" for its economy, which lost its luster after 3 recessions in the last decade. Interest rates plunged to historic lows to prevent the falling economy – in vain. For insurance companies whose lifelines are the interest spread in their investment, this created havoc. Many large insurers went bankrupt in the face of "negative spread" and increasing amount of assets that failed to deliver results. While Japanese insurers have largely avoided the scandals affecting their brothers in the banking and securities industries, they are currently facing unprecedented financial difficulties, including catastrophic bankruptcies.

Institutional weaknesses

The Japanese market is a gigantic market, but it consists of only a few companies. Unlike its US counterpart, where around two thousand companies compete fiercely within the life segment, Japan's market consists of only 23 companies classified as domestic and a handful of foreign entities. The same situation was in the injury sector with 26 domestic companies and 32 foreign companies offering their products. So consumers have far fewer choices than their US counterparts to choose their carrier. There is less variation on the product side as well. Both life and non-life insurance companies in Japan are characterized by "ordinary vanilla" offering. This is more evident in auto insurance where until recently premiums were not allowed to reflect difference risk, e.g. By gender, driving record, etc. Drivers were only classified into three age groups for the purpose of award determination, while US rates have long reflected all of these factors and others as well.

Demand also varies for different types of products. Japanese insurance products are more savings oriented. Although many Japanese life insurance companies offer a few limited types of different life policies (where benefits reflect the value of the underlying financial assets held by the insurer and thus expose the insured to market risk), there are a few people who takes for such policies. At ¥ 100 = $ 1.00, the Japanese variable life policies applicable at As of March 31, 1996, only a value of $ 7.5 billion, which is equivalent to just under 0.08 percent of all life insurance. By contrast, U.S. variable-life policies in effect from 1995 were worth $ 2.7 trillion, approx. 5 percent of the total, with many options, such as variable universal life, available.

Japanese insurers in both parts of the industry have been competing less than their US counterparts. In an environment where a few companies offer a limited number of products to a market where new entrances are tightly regulated, implicit price coordination is expected to limit competition. However, factors specific to Japan reduce further rivalry.

Lack of both price competition and product differentiation means that an insurance company can seize a permanent business and then hold it almost indefinitely. American analysts have sometimes noticed that keiretsu (company group) tapes are just such an excuse. For example, a member of the Mitsubishi group of companies can usually shop around to get the best deal on the hundreds or thousands of goods and services it buys. However, in the case of non-life insurance, such comparative pricing would be useless as all companies would offer much the same product at the same price. As a result, a Mitsubishi Group company more often than not gives business to Tokio Marine & Fire Insurance Co., Ltd., a member of the Mitsubishi keiretsu for decades.

On paper, life insurance premiums have been more flexible. However, the role of government is also big in this part of the industry – and in a way that affects the pricing of insurance products. The nation's postal system operates in addition to the huge savings system postal insurance system popularly known as Kampo. Transactions for Kampo are done through the windows of thousands of post offices. In March 1995, Kampo had $ 84.1 million. Outstanding policies, or about one per year. Households, and almost 10 percent of the life insurance market, measured by current policies.

Funds invested in Kampo mostly go to a huge fund called the Trust Fund, which in turn invests in several state financial institutions as well as several semi-public entities participating in a number of government-related activities, such as ports and highways. Although the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPT) has direct responsibility for Kampo, the Ministry of Finance runs the Trust Fund. Therefore, MOF can theoretically exert an influence on the returns Kampo is able to earn and, by extension, the premiums it is likely to charge.

Kampo has a number of characteristics that influence its interaction with the private sector. As a government-run institution, it is inevitably less efficient, raises its costs, does not make it competitive and implies a declining market share over time. However, since Kampo cannot fail, it has a high risk tolerance that can ultimately be borne by taxpayers. This implies an expanding market share to the extent that this postal life insurance system is able to undercut its products. While the growth scenario is probably what MPT prefers, MOF is apparently just as interested in protecting insurers under its wing from "excessive" competition.

The net effect of these conflicting incentives is that Kampo appears to be limiting the premiums charged by insurers. If their prices rise too much, Kampo will capture further share. In response, insurers can refund premiums. Conversely, if return on investment or greater efficiency reduces private sector premiums relative to underlying insurance, Kampo will lose its market share unless adjusted.

Japan's life insurance sector is also lagging behind its US counterpart in formulating business-to-business collaborations against the threats of individual anti-selection and fraudulent activities. Although the number of companies is far lower in Japan, distrust and disagreement among them resulted in isolated approaches to dealing with these threats. In the United States, the existence of sector-sponsored entities such as the Medical Information Bureau (MIB) acts as a first line of defense against fraud and, in turn, saves the industry about $ 1 billion a year in terms of protection value and judicial effect. Late, major Japanese carriers are launching methods similar to the formation of common data storage and data sharing.

Analysts often complain to insurers for their reluctance to comply with sensible international norms for disclosing their financial data to the investment community and their policyholders. This is especially true because of the reciprocal characteristics of companies compared to their "public" counterpart in the United States. Eg. Nissan Mutual Life Insurance Co., which failed in 1997, generally reported net assets and profits in recent years, though the company's president admitted after his failure that the company had been insolvent for years.

Foreign participation in life insurance

Since February 1973, when the US Life Insurance Company (ALICO) first traveled to Japan to join the market, fifteen foreign life insurers (with more than 50% foreign capital) are currently in business. However, companies such as American Family Life (AFLAC) were initially only allowed to operate in the third sector, namely the medical supplement, such as critical illness plans and cancer plans that were not attractive to Japanese insurers. The mainstream life insurance business was kept out of reach of foreign carriers. However, the great turmoil in the industry in the late 1990s left many of the domestic companies in deep financial trouble. In their unfortunate protection, Japan allowed foreign companies to acquire the sufferers and keep them afloat.

Foreign operators continue to enter the Japanese market. As one of the world's two largest life insurance markets, Japan is considered as strategically important as North America and the European Union. Consolidation in the Japanese life market, facilitated by the collapse of domestic insurers and by continuous deregulation, provides the global insurers with the greatest opportunities to expand their business in Japan. Foreign market players' overall market share is gradually increasing, with global insurers accounting for more than 5% in the form of premium income at the end of the 1999 financial year and over 6% of the applicable individual business. These figures are about twice higher than the five years before.

In 2000, the AXA Group strengthened its business base in Japan through the acquisition of Nippon Dantai Life Insurance Co. Ltd., a domestic insurance company with a weak financial profile. To this end, AXA formed the first holding company in the Japanese life sector. Aetna Life Insurance Co. followed and bought Heiwa Life Insurance Co., while Winterthur Group bought Nicos Life Insurance and Prudential UK bought Orico Life Insurance. Also recently active in the Japanese market are Hartford Life Insurance Co., a US-based insurance company known for its variable insurance business, and France's Cardiff Vie Assurance.

In addition, Manulife Century, a subsidiary of the Manufacturer Life Insurance Company, inherited the operations and assets of Daihyaku Mutual Life Insurance Co., which failed in May 1999. In April 2001, AIG Life Insurance Co. took over the operation of Chiyoda Life and Prudential Life Insurance Co. Ltd. took over Kyoei Life. Both Japanese companies requested legal protection last October.

The foreign participants have a reputation as part of international insurance groups, supported by favorable global track records and strong financial capacity. They are also free of the negative tensions that have plagued Japanese insurers for a decade. Foreign players are better positioned to optimize business opportunities despite market turmoil. Although several large Japanese insurance companies still dominate the market in terms of share, the dynamics change as existing business blocks shift from domestic insurers, including unsuccessful companies, to newcomers in line with policyholders & # 39; flight to quality. The list of companies with foreign participation is as follows:

INA Himawari Life
Prudential Life
Manulife Century Life

Skandia Life
GE Edison Life
Aoba Life

Aetna Heiwa Life
Nichidan Life
Zurich Life

American Family Life
AXA Nichidan Life

Prudential Life
ING Life
CARDIFF Assurance Vie


Foreign insurers are expected to be able to outperform their domestic rivals to some extent in terms of innovative products and distribution, where they can draw on a broader experience in global insurance markets. An immediate challenge for the foreign insurers will be how to establish a large enough franchise in Japan so that they can take advantage of these competitive advantages.

What does the life insurance industry owe?

Apart from its own operational inefficiencies, Japan's life insurance sector is also a victim of government policies, intended in part to save banks from financial hardship. By keeping short-term interest rates low, the Bank of Japan in the mid-1990s encouraged a relatively wide spread between short-term and long-term interest rates. It benefits banks that tend to pay short-term interest rates on their deposits and charge long-term interest rates on their loans.

However, the same policy was detrimental to life insurance companies. Their clients had locked relatively high rates on typical long-term insurance policies. The fall in interest rates generally meant that insurers' returns & # 39; assets fell. In late 1997, insurance company officials reported that guaranteed yields averaged 4 percent, while returns on a favored asset, long-term Japanese government bonds, fluctuated below 2 percent.

Insurers cannot compensate for a negative spread, even with increased volume. In FY 1996, they tried to get out of their dilemma by cutting returns on retirement type investments, only to witness a massive outflow of money under their management to competitors.

To add insult to injury, life insurance companies account for part of the cost of cleaning up banks & # 39; non-functioning active root. As of 1990, the Ministry of Finance allowed issuance of subordinated debt for orders to banks. They can count the funds collected through such instruments as part of their capital, thereby making it easier than otherwise to meet the required capital / asset ratio requirements. This treatment no doubt makes sense insofar as holders of such debt, like shareholders, are almost in line in the event of bankruptcy.

Subordinated debt has high interest rates, precisely because the risk of default is higher. In the early 1990s, insurers were calculating bank defaults almost impossible and tempted by the high available rate of return, lending large sums to banks and other financial institutions on a subordinate basis. Smaller companies, perhaps eager to get in touch with their larger colleagues, were especially big participants. Tokyo Mutual Life Insurance Co., which ranks 16th in Japan's life insurance sector on the basis of assets, had approx. 8 percent of its assets as subordinated debt per share. March 31, 1997, while industry leader Nippon Life had only 3 percent.

The rest, of course, is history. Banks and securities firms that the insurance companies had also borrowed began to fail in the mid-1990s. The collapse of Sanyo Securities Co., Ltd. last fall was partially precipitated by life insurance companies refusing to roll over the brokerage's subordinated loan. Life insurance companies complained that they were sometimes not paid, even when the terms of a bank failure meant that they should have been. Eg. Had Meiji Life Insurance Co. reportedly $ 35 billion Dollars ($ 291.7 million) in outstanding subordinated debt to Hokkaido Takushoku Bank, Ltd. when the bank collapsed in November. Although the Hokkaido bank had some good loans transferred to North Pacific Bank, Ltd., Meiji Life was not offset from these assets. Apparently, the entire loan balance needs to be written off.

Subordinated debt is only part of the history of bad debt. Insurers had a role in almost all large, half-baked lending schemes that collapsed with the bubble economy in the early 1990s. For example, they were lenders to the law (housing finance companies) and had to share in the expensive cleanup of that mess. As banks, insurers also counted on unrealized profits from their equity investments to save them if they got into trouble. Smaller insurers during the bubble period bought such stock at relatively high prices, with the result that by the end of depressed stock prices, all life insurance companies except two intermediate levels (size 9 to 16) had unrealized net losses.

What lies ahead

Analysts have identified the following short-term challenges for the sector:

New market participants;
Earnings Press;
Poor asset quality; and,
Capital letters.

The recent high-profile failures of several life insurance companies have put pressure on life companies to tackle these challenges as quickly as possible and in recognizable ways.

The investment market has been even worse than expected. Interest rates have not risen from historically low levels. The Nikkei index has fallen since January 2001, falling to a low of 9 years after the recent terrorist attack on US soil. Unrealized gains are used to provide some cushion for most insurers, but depending on the insurers & # 39; dependence on unrealized gains, the volatility of retained earnings now affects activation levels and thus financial flexibility.

Table 1
Major risks in relation to Japanese life insurance companies

business Risks
Financial risks

Weak Japanese economy
Strong earnings pressure

Lack of policyholder confidence, flight to quality
Low interest rates, exposure to fluctuations in domestic, overseas investment markets

Deregulation, increasing competition
Poor asset quality

Insufficient policyholders & # 39; safety net
Impaired capitalization

Accelerating consolidation in the life sector with other financial sectors
Limited financial flexibility

Most analysts are likely to agree that Japan's life insurance companies have both solvency and liquidity issues. Heavy contractual obligations to policyholders, shrinking return on assets and little or no cushion from unrealized gains in equity portfolios are combined to make the continued viability of some companies far from secure. Many others, although clearly solvent, face the risk of having to pay unpleasant policyholders sooner than they had planned. Whether solvency or liquidity issues, the question arises as to how insurers will manage their assets. Another factor to consider is Japan's aging population. Like Mr. Yasuo Satoh, Program Manager for Insurance, Finance, IBM Japan, points out, "The industry needs to change its business model. They need to concentrate on life benefits rather than death benefits, and they need to emphasize on the medical supplement and long-term care sectors, as the total population is aging. "

Japanese life insurance companies are actively pursuing greater segmentation while seeking to establish unique strategies in both traditional life and non-life companies. At the end of 2000, the sector witnessed the emergence of numerous business partnerships and cross-border alliances involving major domestic life insurance companies. Prior to increased market consolidation, heated competition and full liberalization of companies in third countries, the companies review their participation through subsidiaries in the non-life insurance business of the company, which was only allowed in 1996.

In the long run, Japanese insurers are likely to create business alliances based on demutualization. Widespread consolidation in Japan's financial markets in the short term will also lead to a revision of the life insurance sector. Although domestic life insurance companies announced different business strategies in the latter half of 2000 to respond to this change in the ocean, the actual benefit of different planned alliances for each insurer remains uncertain. Further market consolidation should add value to policyholders at least to provide a wider range of products and services. To be successful, life insurance companies need to be more sensitive to the needs of different clients while establishing new business models to secure their revenue base. Long-term prospects seem to be good given the high savings rate of the Japanese population. But in the short term, Japan is ready to face a few more insurers before the sector tightens its bottom line with comprehensive reforms and prudent investment and disclosure standards.



Here's how to take advantage of the benefits of Part 141 and Part 61 helicopter flight


There has long been a debate about the benefits of Part 141 versus Part 61 training. Student pilots are confused by the differences and are therefore unable to determine how to make the most of the benefits each offers.

The following remains the same whether your train under Part 141 or Part 61: 1) Written tests. 2) Oral exam in check-ride. 3) Float part of the check trip. 4) Issued license.

Measuring success is the same on both school types: 1) Instructors manufacture or break the school. Knowledgeable, experienced instructors are key. 2) Some flight schools have a high dropout rate. Successful schools should have at least 90% of the students they train to obtain the certificates and ratings they have signed up for. 3) Aircraft maintenance is important. Students very rarely must have canceled flight hours due to the aircraft being grounded. 4) School accidents should be zero or close to zero, indicating that the school places a high value on your safety.

On the surface, it looks like all helicopter flying schools are very similar. This is why it is so useful to understand the differences between Part 141 and Part 61. The two main differences are: 1) Training Part 141 requires following an FAA Approved Training Course Summary (TCO). Part 61 does not require the use of a TCO at all. 2) The flight school itself and the head of flight instructors must meet strict FAA requirements. Part 61 is not subject to these FAA requirements.

Let's start with part 61 helicopter training and flight schools. The majority of helicopter flying schools in the United States today are part 61 flight schools. Many part 61 helicopter flight schools start with a certified flight instructor and a helicopter. The flight instructor offers one-on-one training to prospective students and teaches the student as he or she sees fit. If the instructor is good, more students join the school and the owner buys additional helicopters and hires more instructors to meet demand.

There are no FAA inspections required for part 61 helicopter flight school. The flight school is free to train their students using their own chosen methods. They are expected to follow the rules and regulations of FAR / AIM for Part 61 flight schools and training, but are not subject to FAA inspections to confirm that they do so.

Part 141 training and flight schools must meet very specific requirements and standards. The helicopters flight school itself receives an aviation certificate as it passes FAA inspections. Facilities and aircraft to be used for Part 141 training are inspected. The Chief Flight Instructor is required to take an annual check-in tour with the FAA.

On the education side, the flight school submits a separate and distinct training course summary (TCO) to the FAA for each certificate and / or assessment they wish to teach under Part 141. For example, a private pilot TCO would be submitted. This includes lesson plans for both flight and ground training. The flight school would have to submit another TCO for instruments if they would teach instrument assessments under Part 141.

Do not assume that part 141 helicopter flight school offers all their certificates and ratings under part 141. Many only get FAA certification for private, instrument and trade certificates. It takes a lot of work for the flight school to create TCOs and teach under Part 141. The FAA requires the Flight School to keep comprehensive student documentation for Part 141, including very detailed information on student progress. This is good for the student. It is time consuming for the flight school.

There are a couple of very large flying schools that only offer Part 141 education. They have set schedules for their classes and teach many students at the same time. They have also regimented flight schedules. These few very large flight schools often have a very high ratio of foreign and domestic students. This is because SEVIS (Student Exchange Information Information System) requires flight schools to be FAA certified as part 141 flight school to apply for permission to train international students. The Veterans Association (VA) has the same requirement of Part 141 for veterans to use their VA benefits.

Most Part 141 schools also offer Part 61 education for the same programs. For example, you may choose to do your private pilot under Part 141 or Part 61. Schools that offer both training methods give the student the most flexibility.

The student attending a Part 141 helicopter flight school will receive all the benefits of attending a Part 141 school even if they choose to complete part or all of their training under Part 61. This is because the school is subject to random FAA inspections. They must maintain their high standards at all times to maintain their certification.

The disadvantage of part 141 training is that the TCO & # 39; s must be followed in the written sequence. Each student learns differently and some people prefer the flexibility of Part 61 training, which allows the student to cover materials in the order appropriate for himself.

This highlights another benefit of a flying school that offers both Part 141 and Part 61 training. They often use TCO for your Part 61 workout. This is good for the student pilot as you benefit from a structured course schedule that is FAA certified, while allowing you to cover materials in the order that best suits you.

Another benefit of training at a school that offers both is that you can mix and match your training. For example, I did my private pilot during Part 61 when I wanted the flexibility to jump around the curriculum. Flying instruments are very structured and about learning procedures, so I choose to perform my instrument training under Part 141. I found that the structured approach and learning sequence worked really well for my instrument training. I went back to Part 61 for my commercial education.

Learning to fly a helicopter is fun, exciting and expensive. Learn everything you can about your helicopter flight school and the programs they offer before making your final decision. Fly safe!



Travel tips – International Airlines flight reservation


International Airlines Flight Booking offers booking information on the various international airlines flying around the world. Many of the international airlines offer online flight bookings for airmen. Flights can also be booked at any of these airlines' offices. You can plan and book your flight in advance to avoid last-minute haste and resulting hassle.

Iberia Air, one of the popular airlines in Spain, operates several scheduled flights to domestic as well as international destinations. The planes connect Spain with various countries such as China, Egypt, India, USA, Brazil, England, Cuba, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Canada, South Africa, Japan and so on. Flight bookings can be made online or from one of Iberia Air's offices.

Lufthansa Airlines is one of the largest airlines operating in Europe, offering flights to more than 80 countries worldwide. The flight destinations include all major world cities such as Cairo, Johannesburg, Beijing, Tokyo, Seoul, Delhi, Lahore, Singapore, Price, Berlin, Boston, Toronto, Buenos Aires, London, Barcelona and many others. Flight bookings can be made online or at the ticket offices.

British Airways, the UK's flagship, is one of the major international airlines operating from its main hubs at London Heathrow and London Gatwick Airports. Flights operated by British Airways fly to destinations in Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Oceania. Airline tickets can be booked online as well as at any of the flight offices located across the globe.

Based in Mexico City, Mexicana Airlines is one of the prominent international airlines in Mexico. The international flights operated by Mexicana fly to destinations such as British Columbia, New York, Quebec, Cuba, Chicago, Venezuela, California, Argentina, Texas, Florida and many others. The airlines offer online booking facilities as well as ticket offices throughout the world.

Offering Travel Tips Details – International Airlines Flight Booking proves to be a useful guide for all flight attendants. So whether you are flying with Iberia Air or Mexicana Airlines, Lufthansa Airlines or British Airways, the information provides you with the necessary information.



United Airlines: Dominating the Skies


United Airlines was founded on April 6, 1926, in Boise, Idaho. The original name was Varney Air Lines. Its airport lounge is called the Red Carpet Club and it is a member of the Star Alliance. It offers flights to 216 destinations worldwide and its parent company is United Continental Holdings. It is based in Chicago, Illinois.

fleet size

United Airlines has 359 aircraft in operation. 97 of these are Airbus A320s and 96 are Boeing 757-200s. The US airline also has 55 Airbus A319s available along with 35 Boeing 767-300ERs. There are 33 Boeing 777-200ER and 24 Boeing 747-400s along with 19 Boeing 777-200s.


United operates from six main hubs – O & # 39; Hares International Airport in Chicago, San Francisco Airport, Washington Dulles Airport, Los Angeles Airport, Denver Airport, and Narita International Airport in Tokyo.

United Airlines is looking to add a few airports to its list of hubs in the future. They can be mentioned as below:

Newark Liberty International Airport

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport

George Bush Intercontinental Airport

Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport


United Airlines offers flights to Accra and Lagos in Africa. In the Caribbeans, its flights can be boarded from cities such as Oranjestad, Montego Bay, Grand Cayman, San Juan and Punta Cana. In Central and North America, its flights go to Liberia, Cancun and Calgary except for several destinations in the United States.

In southern America, this US carrier offers flights to Buenos Aires, Lima and Rio di Janeiro, among others. In Asia, Beijing, Taipei, Osaka, Singapore and Seoul have the largest airports. The main European destinations for United Airlines are Brussels, Rome, Paris, Amsterdam and Frankfurt. Melbourne and Guam are the largest locations in the Oceanic belt.

Frequent-flyer program

Mileage Plus is United Airlines frequent flyer program. The main advantage of the program is that the recipients get endless mileage. However, for this to be effective, the pilot must redeem or earn travel miles every eighteen months.

The organization also provides membership at the elite level. This provides more benefits than the standard memberships. Launched in 2010, this facility was only accessible by members who held the status of Premier, 1K and Premier Executive Membership.

These members could also get unlimited upgrades on domestic flights. However, these facilities are provided only if sufficient space is available for flights.

Code sharing agreements

United Airlines has Codesharing deals with a number of airlines:

Aer Lingus

Hawaiian Airlines


Island Air


Jet Airways

Ethiopian Airlines

Qatar Airways

Great Lakes Aviation

TACA Airlines

Gulfstream International Airlines



10 ways to save money on airline tickets


1. Be patient. It takes effort to get a good price on air travel. Now don't let that deter you because saving $ 100 + on flights can mean having more money to spend on sightseeing, hotel, dining out, trips, etc. This means if you want to travel in the spring, start checking prices in late fall or winter. Sometimes there are last minute deals, but more often you find the best deals at least 21 days before your departure date.

First thing in the morning (around 9am and in the evening after 6pm) I like to browse travel websites to see if there are offers being offered that day. I also want to delete my browser history and cookies because travel websites and airlines sometimes remember your search and this can cause prices to actually rise.

My favorite site is Skyscanner. One of the great features of this site is that you can check to see what the best price of the day is for traveling around the world from the airport you prefer. For example, I live in Toronto, so I enter flights from Toronto (YYZ) to Everywhere. This is a great feature because it will tell me where the day, what date, month, etc. is cheapest for me to fly anywhere in the world. (I recently used this site to help me get tickets for my trip to Seoul, South Korea in April. Other airlines charged $ 1,000 – $ 1,500 + for flights to Seoul, but Delta had a promotion and I was able to to get return flights for only $ 850 CAD / $ 770 USD at the exchange rate.)

Another great feature of Skyscanner is that you can enter your destination and travel dates and sign up for "Price Alerts" so that they email you if the price goes up or down for your specified travel dates. (My sister just used this feature to help her get a flight to Edmonton, Alberta for travel in May. The prices for one-way tickets were around $ 300- $ 400 and she was able to get it for $ 269 CAD. )

Another site I would like to use is Expedia. Every day, they show travel offers available to the best domestic and international tourist destinations. They will also include offer packages for "Flight + Hotel". This helps me get a sense of what the average cost is, e.g. A 4 night trip to Las Vegas. Let's say that the cost of flights and hotel to Vegas for 4 nights on the strip is $ 500- $ 600 per night. Person from Toronto, I like to try to keep an eye on offers that are equal to or below this price – this is how I know I'm saving money and getting the best price.

However, one thing about Expedia is that the advertised price is not always available. Looking at their last minute flight offers, I might see return flights to Miami for $ 250 CAD (departing from Toronto), but when I first click on the offer, it might say the price has instead increased to $ 350 CAD. This is not always the case, but it sometimes happens, which is something to keep in mind.

Other sites that I like to use are: Kayak, Redtag, Sunwing, Bing Flight Predictor and Airfarewatchdog.

2. Check the airline's direct site. While these third-party travel sites may be good, sometimes the best non-advertised deals are found directly through the airline's website. I recommend that you sign up for email campaigns offered through your preferred airline. For example, since I live in Canada, I am signed up for Air Canada's travel campaigns. This lets us see special offers as soon as they come live on the Air Canada site.

I really wanted to take a weekend trip to NYC with my sister last February to celebrate her 21st birthday. In addition to checking third-party websites, I would also play with dates by embarking on the journey in Air Canada. They did not announce this deal, but I was able to find direct return flights from YYZ to LGA for $ 199 CAD. This was a lot that I was so happy to find through Air Canada. Sometimes the airline's website also offers promotional codes, so it's worth taking a look.

3. Check departure / arrival from alternative airports. This is not always practical, but sometimes many larger cities have more than one airport or have another airport near them in another city. For Toronto residents, we have Pearson Airport offering domestic and international flights and Billy Bishop Airport offering selected flights within Canada and the United States. There is also the opportunity to cross the border and fly out of Buffalo Airport. Flying out of Buffalo airport is almost always cheaper than Pearson or Billy Bishop. But the downside is most (if not all planes) are not direct and you will have to pay for parking as most leave their car at the airport while traveling. Flying out of Buffalo is always a last resort for me because it is a 90 minute drive from Toronto (you have to consider gas charges) and depending on how long your trip is, parking costs can bring the discounted flight up to or around the same costs such as the flight would have been had it departed from YYZ or YTZ. Sometimes, though, there are significant savings one must have when flying out of Buffalo, which will certainly make it worthwhile for a while. (When I handled the company's business trips at my previous job, last minute trips often occurred and if a group of 2 or more needed to travel to the United States, flying out of the Buffalo business saved upwards of $ 300- $ 600 + per flight. Airfare.)

This can also be said of not only the departure airport you choose, but also the arrival airport. For example, when you fly to NYC, there are essentially three airports that you can choose to arrive at: LGA, JFK or EWR. Sometimes you can get a better price when you arrive at one airport over the other. One thing to remember, however, is the journey from the airport to your hotel. If you take public transit, you can get to Manhattan from the LGA for as little as $ 2.50 when taking the bus and subway trains. However, getting to Manhattan from EWR is a bit more expensive because you have to take New Jersey transit and then switch to the Manhattan transportation system. If you take a taxi, the prices from each airport to Manhattan may vary. This is an important point to keep in mind and I recommend that you do your own research before traveling.

4. Follow airlines and third-party travel websites on Twitter (social media) and sign up for their mailing list. One of the great features of social media is that airlines can use this to advertise special travel campaigns through specific social media. Sometimes an airline offers a special promotional code through their Twitter or Facebook page that is not advertised on other sites. West Jet is offering Blue Tag Thursdays, which is a special promotion only offered on Thursday afternoons (unless they have another special race during this time). You can find this on their site, or look for it advertised on their Twitter or Facebook page. When you sign up for third-party or airline website mailing lists, they sometimes send private promotional offers to their subscribers, giving you secret access to their sales.

5. Don't be afraid to book your flight and hotel separately. Sometimes you can get a great deal on sites like Expedia when you collect your vacation and book flights and hotel at the same time, but this is not always the case. If you see an unusual deal on a flight, book it now, don't wait! You may find a better price at the hotel later. I also recommend that if you actually see a great deal on a flight, please book it now, rather than wait until later that day. Let’s say you look a lot at a flight to San Francisco in the morning, but wait until you get home from work to buy the tickets, this may not work in your favor.

I’ll give you an example: Growing up in San Francisco, I was looking for flights to go back and visit (this was back in October 2012), but they were around $ 600 and I’d wait for a better price. A few weeks later, Delta had a sale and offered flights from Toronto to San Francisco for $ 437 CAD. This was an incredible price considering everything I saw was $ 600 + in the previous weeks so I didn't wait and buy the tickets right away. I checked later in the afternoon to see if the deal was still alive and the price had shot up to $ 600. I highly recommend booking when you see a price you think is high because it may disappear faster than you think.

Sometimes, if you book flights in multiple cities, booking them separately may be more cost effective than going with the same airline. Last summer (June 2013), for example, I wanted to fly from Toronto to Las Vegas, then from Las Vegas to Los Angeles and finally from Los Angeles back home to Toronto. I spent about a month and a half checking prices daily to get the best price. Eventually I was able to get a sale through Air Canada for the flights from Toronto to Las Vegas and from Los Angeles back to Toronto. I was waiting to book the US domestic flight from Las Vegas to Los Angeles, because Air Canada obviously didn't offer this, and prices were around $ 100 USD for this one-way flight at the time. About a week later, I was on, and I saw that they had a $ 49 USD Getaway deal for the flight I needed from LAS to LAX. This was a lot, so of course I booked right away. My whole plane ticket in several cities ended up costing $ 515 total. (YYZ to LAS and LAX to YYZ cost me $ 466 CAD and the southwest flight from LAS to LAX cost $ 49 USD).

6. Know what time of year and which days are cheapest for flights. Travel on Tuesday and Wednesday is generally cheaper than any other weekday. (In general, mid-week search for flights also provides the best deals). From experience, I also find that Thursday and Saturday can sometimes offer the best price. Of course, that doesn't happen all the time, and you'll have to experiment with dates, which is why Skyscanner is great for deciphering which day is the cheapest to travel and return. Days that tend to be the most expensive are Monday, Friday and sometimes Sunday. Airlines know that most business trips take place Monday – Friday, which is why it tends to be more expensive to depart on Monday and return on Friday. However, business travelers have started flying out on Sunday instead of Monday in hopes of getting a more affordable fare, but this doesn't always work. Obviously getting the cheapest departure date for the week depends on the flexibility of your travel dates.

The time of year also helps. It is usually cheaper to fly to Europe in the off-season and shoulder seasons (late fall, winter and early spring). Last year (2013) my parents traveled to Paris in April with direct return flights with Air Transat from Toronto for $ 671 CAD each. This is not the best price I have seen, but it was definitely the best deal at the time for non-stop flights. Traveling in the off or shoulder season is not always negative. Sometimes due to bad weather, you do not want to travel in the off-season, but generally the off-season is less crowded and offers better prices.

I find that flying to Las Vegas (around $ 400- $ 500 CAD) right now (early spring) is a bit more expensive because most people like to go there in the spring before the weather gets too hot in the summer months . (I compare this to flight deals, which I saw last winter for about $ 350 CAD.) It's always wise to check what events are happening on the dates you want to travel to a particular destination. Sometimes a holiday or large conference meeting can raise prices. I always suggest looking through the average price of flights to your preferred destination and then keeping an eye on how the price fluctuates.

7. Save money on your luggage. Most airlines now charge $ 25 each way to check your luggage. And they will charge you extra if your luggage goes above the air weight limit. You can avoid this by packing light and making sure your luggage doesn't go over the limit (check the carrier to confirm the weight limit and for checked baggage prices). If you are going on a short trip, you may also want to consider sharing a checked bag with your travel partner. This can save you $ 50 on travel costs as it costs $ 25 each way to check your luggage.

If you are going on an even shorter trip (weekend trip), just consider carrying luggage and forgetting the checked bag. Most airlines will let you carry a small amount of liquids on board the aircraft. If you're just on a quick weekend trip, you might be able to get away with just a bag. I made this my trip last month to NYC. I went to my local dollar store and bought a small travel bag with clear plastic containers. This allowed me to bring shampoo, conditioner, face wash, night / day cream, foundation, etc. It also included stickers so I knew what everything was. I realize this is not convenient for everyone, but for a 2 night trip, I'd much rather spend $ 1 for the travel bag at Dollarama and then $ 50 for a checked bag. It also saves me the hassle of waiting to pick up my checked bag on Luggage Claim.

8. Shop around for travel / health insurance. I always recommend getting travel or (extra) health insurance for your trip, but sometimes you don’t get the best price when choosing the insurance package offered through the airline when you book your flights. Usually, your work insurance will offer some form of travel or health coverage when you travel. Talk to HR about this if you are unsure. You can also buy insurance through your bank – this is where I tend to find the best rates. This will also be cost effective in the long run when planning and traveling multiple times throughout the year. (Instead of paying for insurance every time you book a flight, you may be covered by your bank or other place of the year for a fixed fee.) If you are over 40 (or have a history of health problems) , I would recommend buying extra health coverage (even if you are already covered for work). Unfortunately, we can never predict what might happen while traveling, and if, heaven forbid, something happened, you'll be glad you bought the extra health insurance. This is something that is unique to each individual, so I can't tell you what the best option is, it's something you need to discuss with HR, your bank and family to see what the best choice is is for you.

9. Avoid paying for seat selection (if you can). Some airlines ask for an extra fee to make a seat choice, sometimes it's included in the price – if that's the case, that's great, but if you have to pay $ 20 or so to make a front seat choice, would I pass. You can usually check in early (24 hours before departure) and make seat choices for free. You may or may not get the seats you wanted. It's a hit or miss. If you do not have a preference for where you are sitting or are willing to take the risk, avoid paying the extra fee for choosing a seat.

10. Take advantage of travel programs. There is so much competition between airlines and credit cards today, so sign up for their travel programs. Talk to your bank and see what travel rewards credit cards work best for your needs. Many of them allow you to collect points on your daily consumption so you can redeem them for free flights. Some of these credit cards have provisions such as That you can only book flights through your bank or there are black out dates for travel. Because of the large amount of travel credit cards offered today, they are getting better and you can find one that does not contain any of these provisions. This means that you can use your points to redeem flights anytime and anywhere. Sometimes these cards come with a hefty annual membership fee, but the benefits alone are worth it.

The same is true of airlines' frequent flyer programs. The more you fly with an airline, the more frequent flyer points you collect. This works well for business travelers because even though their business pays for their travels, they can collect frequent flyer points so they can redeem for their personal vacation trips. Some companies even allow employees to book their own flights and then submit receipts for reimbursement. This allows the employee to get points on their travel rewards credit card in addition to frequent flyer points.

I hope these tips help you when booking your next vacation or trip. Note that these tips have worked in my own experience, but may not work for everyone. The most important thing to remember is that the key to getting the best deal on your flights is to have patience and be flexible with your travel dates.